Fire science is an area of study that examines all aspects fire behavior, firefighting, and fire investigation. Study includes incorporating principles from science and engineering to learn the causes and effects of fire, as well as prevention, firefighting, fire safety, and protection, fire management, fire investigation, hazardous fires and fire scenarios such as wildfires, house fires, vehicle fires, and industrial fires. People who pursue a degree in fire science have an interest in fighting fires in some capacity and saving lives. They may want to prevent fires from occurring in the first place, and work in the fire protection industry or become actual firefighters battling blazes, or investigating the aftermath.
Aspiring Firefighters often enroll in specialist courses covering firefighting tactics, They provide training on different firefighting equipment and strategies to employ when combating various types of fires. The courses may also delve into the principles of hydraulics and pumps which is used when fighting fires. Some of the advanced Undergraduate and Master’s Programs offer courses in Fire Science Administration and Emergency Management. Fire science courses cover building construction as it relates to the development of fire protection systems, as well as the handling and management of hazardous materials, arson investigation and fire analysis of electrical fires, house fires, and more. Some courses even teach investigation methods, how to handle evidence properly, and how to investigate fatal fires.
Individuals starting out should work toward at least an associate’s degree in the field. Continued education and getting a bachelor’s degree or master’s degree can help lead to more job opportunities and a rewarding career financially and professionally. Both in-person and online courses are available through a number of different schools across the country. Some of the schools we like are in this article for fire engineers.
Where Do Fire Science Graduates Work?
Many seeking a fire science degree want to become a firefighter. Others are already working as firefighters, and want to expand their knowledge and give themselves a leg up when it comes to advancing in the fire department. Getting a degree in this field can help those who want supervisory and managerial roles. An advanced degree in fire science offers additional career options, including becoming a forest ranger, working as a fire investigator, and having a career as a fire prevention and protection specialist at a private company. Large private companies also have a need for fire protection specialist with advance degrees. Companies such as Boeing Inc. hires for positions called “Fire Protection Operations Specialist”. These positions are available at most of there offices worldwide because of the demand of fire protection in the aerospace industries. Primary they use fire suppression systems, so if you have an interest in aerospace this is the area you want to concentrate your expertise. You can take a look at the companies listed on this page and find aerospace companies. Rest assured they do pay top dollar for talent. You can also get your feet wet in fire protection by working for a local fire protection company while working your way though college. Local fire protection companies usually specialize in fire extinguisher service, fire sprinkler design and repair and fire alarm installation.
Majestic Fire Protection
16134 Valerio St.
Los Angeles, CA 91406
Networked heat detectors are a relatively new concept in third world countries. Like most creations, they were borne out of necessity. Fire can be devastating, and though the blaze might start in one structure, it can spread and affect many homes and businesses. Fires take lives as well as cause property damage. A networked heat detector is a smart way to deal with this problem in third world countries.
How Do Networked Heat Detectors Differ?
A company from South Africa called Lumkani noted the severe limitations with the detectors currently on the market. They created something better by setting up an interconnected network of these devices in an area. A single device detects the fire and then alerts those who are nearby. The alarm will sound, and if the fire is still detected after 20 seconds, the device sends a transmission via radio frequency to all other devices within 60 meters. This will set off those heat detectors, which then alerts everyone in the area.
In addition, it sends text messages to those in the community where the fire is located, so they can be alerted even if they are not at home. The device Lumkani is creating will eventually have the ability to alert emergency services as well. While this is being developed in South Africa, the idea will likely spread to other countries around the world.
This is a far better solution than the current heat detectors that may only alert those who are in one room or one part of a large building. Also in this type of environment when stoves are left on someone may not be home to alert others before it’s to late. The device stands out from others on the market in that it doesn’t merely detect smoke, which can provide false positives that could be the result of someone cooking. A false alarm could spread a panic through the community , so ensuring that the device only detects actual fires is essential. Testing on the Lukmani device ensures its effectiveness in a variety of conditions.
They are still a relatively small company that is trying to scale up their business so they can market outside of the country. They’ve received a number of awards and accolades for their work already, and it is only a matter of time before they find larger investors to help them expand.
To begin a career as a Fire Engineer, you just can’t choose any program offering the right classes. Like other educational programs a Bachelor or Masters Degree earned at a top ranked university is preferred and a quality university is essential for success. Chose wisely and study comprehensively so that your education will eventually translate into a positive return on your investment. Many Fire Engineering programs are available around the country, you want the best without spending a fortune on tuition.
Becoming a Fire Engineer
A fire engineer helps design solutions to reduce fire risk for structures. They need to have an understanding of fire science, structural engineering, statics, dynamics, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, engineering economics, combustion, risk management, building codes and a host of other subject areas. They need at least a bachelor’s degree from an approved fire engineering degree program to work in the field. The program needs approval by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). You then take the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam. Most students complete the exam as soon as they graduate from their fire engineering program. It is not essential to take the exam, but doing so has the potential to help locate better job options. While licensing is not always required to work as a fire engineer, being licensed will allow you to work independently, if you choose. Those who become fire engineers tend to work within a team for the most part, often with the fire department.
Top Schools to Consider
The following are top university programs for fire engineers that are both high quality and affordable.
A James Clark School of Engineering
University Of Maryland
This university offers undergrad degrees in Fire Protection Engineering, a Combined Bachelor / Master of Science (M.S.) Program and a Combined Bachelor of Science / Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program. Annual tuition for undergraduate programs is $31,144 for out of state students.
Oklahoma State University
Offers a undergraduate degree in Fire Protection and Safety Technology. They also have minors in Fire Protection Systems (FPS), Homeland Security Science and Technology (HSST) and Safety and Exposure Sciences (SAES) Annual tuition can reach $22,000 for nonresident students but is very affordable for residents of the stat of Oklahoma, only $8,500 annually.
In order to enroll in this program, you need to be a high school graduate or have a GED. This is an online school, so you can learn and receive your degree from nearly anywhere. They offer a number of different degree options including an Associate of Science in Fire Science, a BS in Fire Science, and a BS in Fire and Emergency Management. In addition, they offer an MPA in Fire and Emergency Services.
University of Florida
The University of Florida is another great option for those who want to get a degree in the field of fire safety and protection. They have one campus in Florida, located in Gainesville. They offer both undergraduate and graduate programs.
Eastern Kentucky University
This school offers a campus in Richmond, KY and offers courses in fire safety and protection. They have undergraduate and graduate coursework, as well as non-degree coursework available at EKU.
University of North Carolina
The University of North Caroline in Charlotte holds a lot of potential for those who want to train in the field. U.S. News & World Report listed them as one of the top universities of 2012. Pursue a Bachelor of Science in Fire Safety Engineering Technology at UNC. They have a four year on campus program available and a 2+2 program for those who already have an associate’s degree in a relevant field.
How to Choose the Right School for You
While each of the mentioned schools can provide you with a great education, research them further to find the best one for you. Consider whether you are looking for an in person learning experience, or an online experience. How much does the tuition cost? What’s the reputation of the school? All of these should factor into your decision when choosing a school.
Fire safety technology continues to advance at a rapid pace. People use technology to interact with the world and it changes the way people live. One area of technological advancement that is showing a substantial amount of promise is smart buildings. Smart buildings have a number of sensors in them that incorporate a wide range of different technologies. During the design phase of the structures, the architects need to make sure they designing for safety features and not just adding convenience and entertainment options to the residential and commercial buildings. They need to think about fire safety.
Technology Is Making a Big Difference
When most people talk about smart buildings, they discuss some of the most well known benefits such as reducing energy expenditure. When commercial building owners and residential owners discuss smart buildings it’s primarily about tying the electrical components, including consumer electronics into a simple control panel, some devices are even operable by remote access devices. However, the leading and most beneficial innovation is coming from fire safety technology.
The traditional way of dealing with fires continues to cause far too many injuries, deaths, and a substantial amount of property damage. Statistics from 2013 show fire departments around the United States responded to 487,500 structure fires. These fires caused $9.5 billion in damages, 14,075 civilian injuries and 30,000 fire fighter injuries. In addition, there were 2,855 civilian casualties. The introduction of new technologies into commercial and residential buildings has the potential to decrease these numbers drastically.
Basic smart technology can communicate with the fire department in real time and the data gathered by the building fire systems can transmit critical information concerning the scope of the fire. The data can help emergency personnel arrive prepared and extinguish the fire as quickly and safely as possible. It’s still relatively early in the development of fire safety technology that can communicate with emergency services and provide this type of information, but positive changes are coming, especially with the foundational Cyber-Physical Systems. The majority of Smart buildings are built upon the concepts of Cyber-Physical Systems. Cyber-Physical Systems is the integration of wireless networks, extranet, advanced sensors, cloud services and other physical and technology systems with service providers such as fire fighting, healthcare and transportation systems. These systems work together to not only extinguish fires but to transmit critical information to government and private non-emergency and emergency providers.
What Are the Benefits?
The major advantage is the improved quality of fire protection for the physical structure and the prospect of preserving lives. Most of the systems in place today are relatively easy to use. The fire safety systems are able to take care of monitoring the building and detecting preset variables. The system can sound alarms and alert the proper authorities to respond. This helps cut down on the amount of time from the start of the fire to the arrival of help.
Should Cost Be a Concern?
One of the reasons real estate professionals are reserved about including smart technology in their building is fear of considerable expenditure and maintenance. However, the cost of not having proper fire safety and security can actually be far greater. Even though insurance can replace some belongings and business equipment, there is always the chance that important data, beloved items could be lost. Worse yet, fires cause injury and death. Integrating smart technologies to help detect and alert for fires is well worth the cost.
In the future, most of the new construction will likely include various levels of smart technology. Smart buildings can improve the performance of residential home, industrial and commercial properties. Individuals and companies retrofitting their building and upgrading it, or who are just now building, should consider going the “smart” route and incorporating these types of fire technology.
An Automated External Defibrillator, or AED, is a portable defibrillator that checks the rhythm of the heart and provides a jolt of electrical shock to restore the correct rhythm and heartbeat. These are used to treat people who have suffered from a sudden cardiac arrest.
Sudden cardiac arrest, is a condition when the heart stops beating unexpectedly, which means that blood is not reaching the brain and other vital organs to sustain life. This is a critical condition and can result in permanent damage to the heart, brain and other organs or death when not provided with emergency medical treatment. Sudden cardiac arrest is a primary cause of death in people over 40 in the United States.
Statistics show nearly 326,200 of these events occur each year, and 9 out of 10 die during the event. The Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation released a chart detailing how the number of people who die from SCA each year is equal to the number of people who die from Alzheimer’s, assault with firearms, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, diabetes, HIV, house fires, motor vehicle accidents, prostate cancer, and suicides combined.
Improving Safety in Public Buildings
The idea of having an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) located within convenient reach is actually a good idea. This is why different types of facilities are installing them for increased public safety. The most common locations to find an AED includes airports, hotels, schools, government buildings, and community centers. While they are not as commonplace as fire extinguishers, AED’s are starting to make their way into a number public locations.
Having AEDs available in public spaces, whether it is a library, a restaurant, or at a sports or music venue, has the potential to improve the safety of venues with large occupancy. By and large, the use of AEDs has the potential to help provide another element of safety for many buildings around the country. Knowing the location of the AEDs, just as you know the location of fire extinguishers and emergency exits, should become a habit.
Are There Any Problems?
Recalls on AED devices have occurred because of manufacturing quality issues. The FDA was quick to take action. On February 3, 2015, they issued the Final Order: Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Automated External Defibrillator Systems. This guideline helps manufacturers to ensure they are creating high quality, reliable AEDs and testing them properly before introducing the product to the market. The manufacturers now need to have “premarket approval for all future and currently marketed AED’s and AED accessories” according to the FDA.
Are the AEDs Difficult to Use?
AEDs are for use by the public, and the instructions are relatively simple. The AEDs on the market today have very easy to follow visual instructions, and many have voice commands so users can follow along. The simplicity of the instructions makes it possible for nearly anyone to use the AEDs effectively. In time, they will likely become almost as commonplace as fire extinguishers, and just as easy to use.
There are various Carbon Dioxide fire extinguisher uses. One, they are used to extinguish fires involving highly flammable liquids (Class B and C fires) as well as flammable gases. The extinguishers have non-flammable, non-conducive, and non-corrosive CO2 gases that are extracted from the atmosphere at extremely high pressure.
CO2 extinguishers can easily be recognized by their black colored band as well as the hard horn and missing gauge. They come in different sizes, which range from 5, 10, 15 and 20lbs. As for the larger cylinders, the horn is located at the end of a flexible, long hose. Do you know other purposes for which Carbon Dioxide fire extinguisher used for?
Carbon Dioxide extinguishers work by reducing the amount of oxygen in the fire. Oxygen is required to keep the fire burning. Therefore, CO2 works by displacing oxygen and since it’s very cold when coming out under the intense pressure, it cools off the burning material.
However, CO2 extinguishers may not extinguish Class A fires effectively. This is because the gas may not be sufficient to reduce the level of oxygen that can successfully put out the fire. The other thing is that Class A fires may re-ignite and smolder the fire.
Does carbon dioxide fire extinguisher used for not leaving residues? Yes, they have an advantage over the Dry-Powder extinguishers; they don’t leave a residue after discharge. Therefore, they are most suitable for use on an electrical fire or a room containing electronics and electrical appliances. They can also be used in storage rooms with flammable liquids such as spirits, diesel, petrol, oils, solvents etc
CO2 fire extinguishers should not be used on fires involving cooking fats and oils as well as grease. This is because the extinguishers produce a strong jet of gas at a high pressure which may cause the burning oil/fat to splash to other rooms. Another thing is that you should take caution when putting out such fires. Always stand a few feet away from the fire to avoid the burning fat/oil from splashing on your body.
When purchasing a CO2 fire extinguisher, it’s important to ensure that you buy one having a frost free horn. This is because CO2 is usually very cold when being released for the extinguisher. Holding the horn of a non-frost free horn when using the extinguisher may cause your hand to freeze, therefore resulting to serious injuries.
The reason why you should go for Frost Free horns is because the horns are well designed to withstand the freeing gas, thereby making it safe to be held by normally without causing injuries. You are also advised against holding the horn of any Carbon Dioxide fire extinguisher if it’s not frost free.
For safety purposes, CO2 extinguishers must be inspected regularly for any dents or cracks. Also, they must be tested every twelve or five years according to the National Fire Protection Agency. Testing should also involve checking the expiry date.
Carbon Dioxide fire extinguisher used for being effective in kitchens, mechanical rooms, laboratories as well as flammable liquid storage areas. As stated earlier, all CO2 fire extinguishers must undergo a hydrostatic testing and be recharged after every five years.
You see fire extinguishers everywhere: in schools, homes, hospitals, banks, laboratories, business premises etc. But the question is, do you know how to use them? Well, no matter how many times you’ve seen them, you may have not given it a thought about fire extinguishers and how to use them. Maybe, you always have an assumption that it’s too simple for you to take some time and learn. The truth is, as simple as it may seem, there are a few things that you need to be aware of before handling any fire extinguisher. Here are a few guidelines that will highlight fire extinguishers and how to use them.
First, you need to know about each type of fire extinguishers. There are Water Fire Extinguishers that are used to extinguish fires involving flammable organic materials such as wood, paper, coal, textile etc. The next on the list is the Foam Extinguishers, which are used for fires involving Flammable liquids and Gases. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers are used to extinguish Electrical fires. Dry-Powder extinguishers are multi-purposes and are mainly used to put out highly combustible metals such as potassium, magnesium, aluminum etc. Wet-Chemical fire extinguishers are used for fires caused by flammable oils and fats. They are mainly used for kitchen fires. Therefore, you need to learn about how to use a fire extinguisher.
Here are a few important tips and details on fire extinguishers and how to use them.
Use the P.A.S.S Technique
This technique is simple for anyone to understand.
- P– Pull the pin at the top of the fire extinguisher. The pin unlocks the locking mechanism and this allows you to discharge the extinguishing agent.
- A– Aim at the base of the fire. Aiming at the flames will only be useless because the source of the fire has not been extinguished. In order to put out the fire, you must first extinguish the fuel.
- S– Squeeze the lever or hand slowly so as to discharge the agent. Keep it held down because releasing it will stop the discharge.
- S– Sweep side to side. By use of a sweeping motion, move the fire extinguisher back and forth until the fire is completely extinguished. For your own safety, always operate the fire extinguisher a few inches away from the fire. Once the fire starts to diminish, you can move towards the fire slowly. You must also read the manufacturer’s instructions very carefully because different manufacturers recommend operating them from a safe distance.
Remember that when using fire extinguishers, re-ignition may occur, especially when using Carbon Dioxide fire extinguishers. Therefore, it’s good to ensure that the burning material is completely extinguished. Also, some extinguishing agents may be harmful for your health when inhaled. Always wear protective clothing and nose-masks when putting out fires. You will find it an important factor while searching for answers about fire extinguishers and how to use them.
Do you know how many different types of fire extinguishers are there? No? let us explain them
There are different types of fire extinguishers that are used to fight with different classes of fires. The most important thing is to know the different types of extinguishers, type of materials they are used to extinguish and how they work. Below is a list of the different types of fire extinguishers that are commonly used to put out fires.
- Water Fire Extinguishers
Water extinguishers are commonly used to fight flames that involve combustible organic solid materials which include clothes, plastic, wood, paper, coal and other materials. To ensure that all the areas affected by the fire are covered, the jet of water must be pointed at the base of the flame. Water acts as a cooling effect on the fuel surfaces and thus, it helps in reducing the thermo-chemical decomposition rate of fuels. Water extinguishers should not be used on burning fat or oil or on electrical appliances.
- Water Spray Extinguisher (with additives)
While find the answer of the question: how many different types of fire extinguishers are there, you will find These types of extinguishers are most effective on fires involving organic solid materials like paper, wood, clothes, and coal etc. The water extinguisher has a spray nozzle that produces high pressure and thus creating a fine spray. The fine spray covers a large surface area on the area affected by the fire. The water also contains surfactants (additives) which allow the water penetrate deeper into the burning material thus, making it more effective.
- Water Mist Fire Extinguishers
These types of extinguishers are the most recent developments. Water is turned into microscopic particles in the supersonic nozzle. When drawn to the fire, it cools and suffocates the fire. Additionally, the mist forms a safety barrier between the fire and the user.
- Dry-Powder Fire Extinguishers
There are two types of dry-powder fire extinguishers. There are those that are multi-purpose and those with special powders. Multi-purpose extinguishers are used on fires involving liquids like fats, oil, paint, and petrol. They are also used solids and gases. Those with special powders are used on fires involving combustible metals. These metals include magnesium, aluminium, lithium, and sodium when in powder form. They work by forming a crust which insulates the metal to prevent fire from spreading to the nearest combustible materials. They also smother the fire to prevent oxygen from reacting with the metal.
- Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishers
They are mostly suitable for fires involving live electrical appliances and flammable liquids. The extinguisher works by suffocating the fire by displacing oxygen. However, it’s important to note that Carbon Dioxide dissipates quickly thus allowing re-ignition of the fire. It should not be used on chip or fan pan fires.
- Form Fire Extinguishers
It’s mostly used for fires involving solids and burning liquids as well as those caused by electricity. The foaming agent floats on top of the burning liquid and breaks the interaction between the flames and the fuels surface. Foam extinguishers are mainly water-based.
- Wet Chemical Fire Extinguishers
The extinguishers are ideal for fires involving cooking oils and fats. They contain extinguishing agents such as potassium acetate and spray it out as mist. The potassium saponifies the surface of the cooking oil to produce a layer of foam while the mist cools the flame front. The blanketing effect provides a great cooling effect.
- Fire Blankets
Majestic Fire Protection
16134 Valerio St.
Los Angeles, CA 91406
Types of Fire Sprinkler Systems
Did you know there are various types of fire sprinkler systems? Most people don’t know the various types and fundamental distinctions between them. The differences are not too complex, but the sprinkler system you use depends on a variety of factors. It would behoove you to consult with a Majestic Fire Protection Engineer and explore your options. Your system has to always pass local and state regulations, designed specifically for your home or facility and provide total protection for family and/ or coworkers.
Considerations for Sprinkler System Costs
There are a number of different types of fire sprinkler systems. Along with the types, you have to keep in mind the various ways in which they work and all of the hidden costs that go along with them. When you have all of these things in mind, you can have a good idea of what the fire sprinkler system you are looking at will cost.
Here are some of the considerations that you may want to keep in mind when considering fire sprinkler systems:
- Type of Sprinkler System – This is an important thing to keep in mind. There are multiple types of sprinkler systems available, each with their own costs: wet pipe systems, deluge systems, dry pipe systems, pre-action systems, foam water systems, water spray systems, and water mist systems all have individual methods of action and have their own cost considerations, all of which must be kept in mind.
- Water Cost – This one is obvious. Most sprinkler systems are going to use water, either from a cistern or from a local source. This is going to cost whatever the water costs to use, obviously.
- Chemical cost – For systems that utilize something besides water, there will be a cost associated with the chemicals or the foams that are utilized in the system. This is going to, usually, depend on the manufacturer that you are able to find. Generally, the manufacturer of the sprinkler system is going to have a preferred vendor (or they will supply their own chemicals).
- System monitoring – Security and fire monitoring service companies will monitor the status of your system, but there is generally going to be a monthly cost for this type of thing. The cost will depend on who the system is with. Monitoring services will usually only be provided by the company that manufactured your system. If your system is from Bosche, they will be handling the monitoring as well, etc.
- System testing and maintenance – Most systems need a specialist to go over their system and do thorough testing each year (and more often – for some parts). There is a cost associated with that expertise and knowledge.
On average, at least in the United States, the cost of sprinkler systems is somewhere around $0.35 per square foot. This is the typical cost for residential systems that utilize the local water supplies. The cost for commercial establishments or specialized buildings can go much higher. One thing to keep in mind, however, when looking at the cost of these things, is how much money is generally lost in the event of a fire. Compared with the cost of average losses resulting from fire, the cost of sprinkler systems are absolutely minimal.
Majestic Fire Protection
16134 Valerio St.
Los Angeles, CA 91406